Conditions & Treatments

Being an active and informed participant in your health care is crucial to helping your doctor maintain your health. Part of this is understanding your urological condition and the treatment options available to you. In this way you, in conjunction with your urologist, can make informed decisions about your health.

Urological Terms Directory

  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) : A condition in which the prostate becomes enlarged as part of the aging process.
  • Bladder: A hollow muscular balloon shaped organ that stores urine until it is excreted from the body.
  • Bladder Training: A behavioral technique that teaches the patient to resist or inhibit the urge to urinate, and to urinate according to a schedule rather than urinating at the urge.
  • Catheter: A tube passed through the body for draining fluids or injecting them into body cavities. It may be made of elastic, elastic web, rubber, glass, metal, or plastic.
  • Catheterization: Insertion of a slender tube through the urethra or through the anterior abdominal wall into the bladder, urinary reservoir, or urinary conduit to allow urine drainage.
  • Creatinine: A waste product that is filtered from the blood by the kidneys and expelled in urine.
  • Cystocele:  Herniation of bladder into vagina
  • Cystectomy: Surgical removal of the bladder.
  • Cystoscopy: A flexible scope is inserted into the urethra and then into the bladder to determine abnormalities in the bladder and lower urinary tract.
  • Hydrocele: a painless swelling of the scrotum, caused by a collection of fluid around the testicle; commonly occurs in middle-aged men.
  • Hyperplasia: Excessive growth of normal cells of an organ.
  • Irritable Bladder: Involuntary contractions of muscles in the bladder, which can cause lack of control of urination.
  • Kegel Exercises: Exercises is to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor, which leads to more control and prevents leakage.
  • Kidney: One of a pair of organs located at the back of the abdominal cavity. Kidneys make urine through blood filtration.
  • Kidney Stone: A hard mass composed of substances from the urine that form in the kidneys.
  • Lithotripsy: A procedure done to break up stones in the urinary tract using ultrasonic shock waves, so that the fragments can be easily passed from the body.
  • Mestastasis: The spreading of a cancerous tumor to another part of the body.
  • Mixed Incontinence: Having both stress and urge incontinence.
  • Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both of the testicles.
  • Orchitis: Inflammation of a testicle.
  • Overactive Bladder: A condition characterized by involuntary bladder muscle contractions during the bladder filling phase which the patient cannot suppress.
  • Post-void Residual (PVR) Volume: A diagnostic test which measures how much urine remains in the bladder after urination. Specific measurement of PVR volume can be accomplished by catheterization, pelvic ultrasound, radiography, or radioisoctope studies.
  • Prostate: A muscular, walnut size gland that surrounds part of the urethra. It secretes seminal fluid, a milky substance that combines with sperm (produced in the testicles) to form semen.
  • Prostatectomy: Surgical removal of the prostate.
  • Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate.
  • Sling Procedures: Surgical methods for treating urinary incontinence involving the placement of a sling, made either of tissue obtained from the person undergoing the sling procedure or a synthetic material. The sling is anchored to retropubic and/or abdominal structures.
  • Sphincter: A ring of muscle fibers located around an opening in the body that regulates the passage of substances.
  • Stress Test: A diagnostic test that requires patients to lift something or perform an exercise to determines if there is urine loss when stress is placed on bladder muscles.
  • Stress Urinary Incontinence: Urinary Incontinence: The involuntary loss of urine during period of increased abdominal pressure. Such events include laughing, sneezing, coughing or lifting heavy objects.
  • Testosterone: The sex hormone that stimulates development of male sex characteristics and bone and muscle growth; produced by the testicles and in small amounts by the ovaries.
  • Underactive Bladder: A condition characterized by a bladder contraction of inadequate magnitude and/or duration to effect bladder emptying in a normal timespan. This condition can be caused by drugs, fecal impaction, and neurologic conditions such as Diabetic neuropathy or low spinal cord injury or as a result of radical pelvic surgery. It also can result from a weakening of the detruser muscle from vitamin B12 deficiency or idiopathic causes. Bladder underactivity may cause overdistension of the bladder, resulting in overflow incontinence.
  • Urge Urinary Incontinence: The involuntary loss of urine associated with a sudden and strong urge to void (urgency).
  • Urge/urgency: A strong desire to void.
  • Urinalysis: A group of physical and chemical tests done on a sample of urine to check for various disorders, including those of the kidneys and urinary tract.
  • Urinary Incontinence: (UI) Involuntary loss of urine sufficient to be a problem. There are several types of UI, but all are characterized by an inability to restrain voiding.
  • Urodynamic Tests: Diagnostic tests to examine the bladder and urethral sphincter function.